EMAC glossary of terms and acronyms.

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See Advance Team.


American Ambulance Association


After Action Conference


After Action Report/Improvement Plan


The second phase of the EMAC process. The activation phase comprises two steps: the declaration of a disaster or emergency by the emergency-impacted state’s governor and opening of an event by the impacted state in the online EMAC Operations System. An emergency-impacted state may not legally request EMAC assistance without first completing these two steps.

Advance Team (A-Team)

A team of two or more personnel from any EMAC Member State who are knowledgeable about and prepared to implement EMAC procedures in their own state or in any other Member State and which, at the request of a Member State, is deployed to the state’s EOC to facilitate EMAC requests and assistance between Member States. The A-Team assists the state with requests for assistance, tracks the location and status of the assistance accepted and deployed to the Requesting State’s locations, and assists deployed personnel as needed and required while they are deployed. The A-Team is the primary point of contact for requesting and gaining assistance provided under EMAC.

After-Action Review (AAR)

A structured review process after an EMAC response that analyzes what happened, why it happened, and how it can be done better.  The results of the After-Action Review are documented in an After-Action Report.


Adjutants Generals Association of the United States

Agent of the State

A designation that a state should provide for non-state-government employees in its EMAC enabling legislation so that its personnel may deploy legally under EMAC for tort liability and immunity purposes. Without the designation “temporary agent of the state” or a definite provision within a memorandum of understanding or other legal document, EMAC-deployed personnel who are not state government employees are at risk with regard to tort liability and workers compensation issues.


All Hazards Incident Management Team Association


Association of Public Safety Communications Officials


American Public Works Association

Area of Operations (AO)

The jurisdictional area for which a deployed coordinating team element is responsible. For example, a state is the Area of Operations for a state emergency management organization. A federal region can consider one or more states within that region as being in its Area of Operations. EMAC personnel deployed to a local area refer to that area as their Area of Operations.

Assisting State

Any EMAC Member State providing assistance to another Member State using the EMAC process.

Authorized Representative (AR)

The state emergency management agency person who can legally obligate state resources and expend state funds for EMAC purposes. In a Requesting State, the Authorized Representative is the person who is legally empowered under Article IIIB of the Compact to initiate a request for assistance under EMAC.  In an Assisting State, the Authorized Representative is the person who can legally approve the response to a request for assistance.   State emergency management directors are positionally named in the EMAC legislation as EMAC Authorized Representatives. The state emergency management director can delegate this authority to other emergency management officials within the organization as long as they possess the same obligating authority as the state emergency management director.


Backfill Personnel

Replacement personnel performing the work of regular personnel who have been deployed on an EMAC mission. Expenses for backfill personnel are not eligible for reimbursement unless the costs have been approved in the authorized REQ-A prior to deployment.


The primary means of (1) alerting EMAC Member States of an impending or occurring emergency event or (2) requesting assistance. The broadcast is sent via the EMAC website’s Operations System.



Controller Evaluator

Command and Control

The exercise of authority and control over personnel deployed on an EMAC mission. An Assisting State maintains command and control of EMAC-deployed personnel during a mission, whereas the Requesting State provides operational control.


The process of identifying, evaluating, and documenting the knowledge, skills, and abilities of personnel (from



A conversation in which information is exchanged on the aspects of an EMAC mission (e.g., personnel’s well-being, experience).


The process of releasing assets (personnel and equipment) whose mission is completed or no longer needed to support a specific mission within an event.  The process involves debriefing personnel, returning issued equipment, completing and submitting required paperwork, arranging return travel, and tracking released assets back to their home duty station in the Requesting State in a safe and timely manner.


The stage of the response phase when resources travel to the Requesting State and perform their missions.

Designated Contact (DC)

The point of contact for EMAC in an EMAC Member State and the person who can discuss the details of a request for assistance. The Designated Contact is not usually legally empowered to initiate an EMAC request or to authorize EMAC assistance without direction from an Authorized Representative.


U.S. Department of Homeland Security



Exercise Evaluation Guides

EMAC Advisory Group

A group made up of invited representatives from national organizations of the first-responder community and other mutual aid stakeholders. The Advisory Group facilitates the effective integration of multidiscipline emergency response and recovery assets for nationwide mutual aid through EMAC.

EMAC Committee

A committee of state emergency management directors responsible for policy oversight of the Compact. 

EMAC Coordinator

Usually also serving as a Designated Contact, the EMAC Coordinator serves as the “lead,” or primary point of contact for EMAC in a Member State.

EMAC Executive Task Force (ETF)

A group of EMAC Member State personnel who work on the policies and procedures of EMAC and relay information and issues from the local/regional level up to the national level at the request of the EMAC Committee. The ETF provides the coordination essential to ensure that EMAC is in a constant state of readiness and that process improvements—including outreach, information sharing, and regional education—are ongoing to meet the needs of Member States. Voting members of the Executive Task Force include the Chair, the Chair-elect, the Past Chair, Lead State Representatives from the ten FEMA-defined regions, and three at-large members.

EMAC Mobilization Unit (EMU)

A processing center for EMAC resources into an impacted area. The concept of the EMU has been enhanced in the EMAC Personnel Accountability and Processing Package (EPAPP) to include demobilization processing as well.

EMAC Operational Management

EMAC’s four operational coordination components and a three-level operational deployment system allow for control to expand and contract as needs demand.

EMAC Operations System (EOS)

An online system through which states manage EMAC events.

EMAC Personnel Accountability and Processing Package (EPAPP)

An EMAC personnel processing center for both mobilization and demobilization during catastrophic recovery efforts. The EMAC Mobilization Unit (EMU) is similar but provides processing only for incoming personnel.

EMAC Process

A five-phase process comprising all stages of EMAC in action. The EMAC process begins with pre-event preparation; continues through activation of the Compact, request and offer of resources, and response; and ends with reimbursement of all parties involved.

Emergency Management Agency (EMA)

An agency at a given level of government that coordinates the response to disasters.

Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC)

An interstate agreement that enables entities to provide mutual assistance during times of need. EMAC is composed of thirteen Articles of Agreement that have been enacted into law by each of the Member States.

Emergency Operations Center (EOC)

A centralized command and control facility responsible for carrying out the principles of emergency preparedness and emergency management functions and ensuring the continuity of operation of a particular entity (typically, the state).


Exercise Play Ends


EMAC Operations System


Exercise Plan



Functional Exercise


Federal Emergency Management Agency



The “after-action” discussions and evaluations of an agency’s (or multiple agencies’) performance following an exercise, training session, or major event. The main purpose of a hotwash is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the response to a given event so that decisions may be made to prevent mistakes from that event to happen in a future event. A hotwash normally includes all the parties that participated in the exercise or response activities. (from Wikipedia)


Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program


Incident Command System (ICS)

A tool used for the command, control, and coordination of emergency response.


Between two or more countries.


Between two or more states. EMAC is for interstate use only.

Interstate Reimbursement Form (R-1)

The form used to summarize the costs of all interstate assistance requested and provided by an Assisting State. 


Within a state (not between states).

Intrastate Reimbursement Form (R-2)

The form used to summarize the costs of all intrastate assistance requested and provided by an agency, municipality, county, or other organization within a state that provided assistance to another state under EMAC. 


Improvement Plan


Joint Field Office (JFO)

A facility used to house state, federal, and volunteer agency personnel who administer state and federal recovery assistance programs and manage recovery operations within each state declared a major disaster by the president.

Joint Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration (JRSOI) Site

An off-incident, temporary site where emergency services personnel and equipment report upon arrival into a disaster-impacted state. Many states use the National Guard to stand up a JRSOI as the first mission to provide logistical support of all resources that are coming into the state. A JRSOI may be staffed by a combination of National Guard, local, state, and federal resources.



Kentucky Division of Emergency Management


Lead State Representative (LSR)

A member of the EMAC Executive Task Force (ETF) who facilitates training courses and serves as a conduit of information for states within his/her region.  There is one lead state representative per each FEMA region.


Having a license or official authority to practice a profession.



Mutual Aid Support System

Member State

With regard to EMAC, any of the fifty United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

A document that describes a bi- or multilateral agreement between parties (Wikipedia). It may be used in states where there is no intrastate mutual aid agreement established that includes a provision making local personnel “agents of the state” so that they may deploy legally under EMAC.

Mission Order Authorization Form (Mission Order)

The documentation issued to resources at the pre-deployment briefing that authorizes the deployment.

Mission Ready Package (MRP)

Specific response and recovery resource capabilities that are organized, developed, trained, and exercised prior to an emergency or disaster. Mission Ready Packages are based on NIMS resource typing but take the concept one step further by considering the mission, limitations that might impact the mission, required support, the footprint of the space needed to stage and complete the mission, and the estimated cost. MRPs are developed in cooperation with resource providers and coordinated with state emergency management agencies.


The first stage of the Response phase of the EMAC process, when resources (personnel and equipment) are assembled and prepare to deploy into an affected area.


Master Scenario Events List


Montana Disaster & Emergency Services Division

Mutual Aid

An agreement to lend assistance across jurisdictional boundaries. In its broadest sense, mutual aid may be considered “neighbor helping neighbor.”  When formalized, mutual aid agreements provide a basic understanding between parties involved that the assisting jurisdiction will help the requesting jurisdiction if it is possible and reasonable.


N+ Factor

The number of hours (or other time unit specified) from notification of mission authorization to time of deployment.

National Coordinating State (NCS)

A group of operations personnel in the home state of the chair of the EMAC Executive Task Force who remain in their home state to coordinate and enforce EMAC policies and procedures during EMAC activations. The group exercises overall control of EMAC operations during activation of the system. The NCS is activated when there are active EMAC events.

National EMAC Liaison Team (NELT)

A team of qualified A-Team personnel that deploys to the National Response Coordination Center in Washington, D.C., upon request from FEMA to the National Coordinating State (NCS) and with concurrence from NEMA.  The NELT serves a liaison function in the EMAC governance structure to keep the federal government aware of state EMAC operations so that duplication of activities is avoided. The NELT may not actively request resources from other states.

National Emergency Management Association (NEMA)

A nonprofit, nonpartisan association of emergency management and homeland security professionals that administers EMAC on behalf of the EMAC Member States.

National Incident Management System (NIMS)

The system used to conduct incident management as specified in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5).  NIMS established a national standard methodology for managing emergencies and ensuring seamless integration of all local, state, and federal forces into the system.

National Response Coordination Center (NRCC)

The facility in Washington, D.C., used by DHS/FEMA to coordinate federal response and recovery operations.  Federal Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) are co-located at the NRCC to provide resource support to state counterparts through the Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC).

National Response Framework (NRF)

A series of guiding principles developed by the Department of Homeland Security that provides a comprehensive, all-hazards approach to domestic incident response.


National Coordinating State


National Emergency Management Association


National Incident Management System


National Response Framework


Operational Control

Control of an EMAC mission and its day-to-day output relative to schedules, specifications, and costs. The Requesting State has operational control over deployed personnel, but the Assisting State (the state that deployed the personnel) has command and control, so that deployed personnel may be recalled to the home state whenever necessary.

Operational Coordination Components

Elements of a structure to ensure efficient control, action, and coordination. EMAC’s governance structure comprises four primary operational coordination components: National Coordinating State (NCS), Advance Team (A-Team), National EMAC Liaison Team (NELT), and Regional EMAC Liaison Team (RELT).

Operations Manual

A manual that sets forth the terms of the EMAC agreement and establishes the EMAC procedures that all Member States are to follow. It provides the written standardized process to ensure that each Member State understands the EMAC agreement, is adequately prepared to participate in the agreement, and follows the same standardized procedures while implementing EMAC. 



Public Information Officer


Point of Contact

Pre-Event Preparation

The first phase of the EMAC process, when EMAC stakeholders and resource providers develop and strengthen response capabilities to support requests for assistance once EMAC is activated. This phase consists of the actions of developing internal plans and procedures for implementing EMAC, completing EMAC training, exercising EMAC procedures, and developing Mission Ready Packages. 


Regional EMAC Liaison Team (RELT)

A team of qualified A-Team personnel that deploys to a Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC) in one of the FEMA regional offices upon request from FEMA to the National Coordinating State (NCS) and with concurrence from NEMA.  The RELT serves a liaison function (similar to a National EMAC Liaison Team) in the EMAC governance structure to coordinate with A-Teams deployed to Requesting States.

Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC)

The facility from which federal personnel coordinate response operations and provide resource support to states within each federal region.  RRCCs usually stand down once a Joint Field Office is operational in the affected states within the region.


The fifth, and last, phase of the EMAC process. During this phase, all assisting forces, including the deployed personnel, resource providers, and assisting state EMA, are reimbursed for expenses incurred during the mission and specified on the mission’s REQ-A.

Request and Offer

The third phase of the EMAC process.  During this phase, the Requesting State details the mission assignment and the resources needed, and notifies other states of their request.  Assisting States detail their available resources and estimate the cost for the use of that resource, and make an offer to the Requesting State.  The states use the REQ-A form to confirm their agreement in writing.

Request for Assistance Form (REQ-A)

The EMAC form used to officially request assistance, offer assistance, and accept assistance.  The use of the single form simplifies and streamlines the paperwork necessary to request and receive assistance from Member States. When duly executed by the Authorized Representatives of both the Requesting and Assisting States, the REQ-A constitutes a legally binding contract between the Requesting and Assisting States under EMAC.

Requesting State

Any EMAC Member State that has informally or formally requested interstate assistance using any of the systems established by EMAC for this purpose.

Resource Provider

Any state or local government agency or organization that is providing an EMAC-requested resource through an Assisting State to perform an official EMAC REQ-A mission.

Resource Typing

The categorization and description of response resources that are commonly exchanged in disasters through mutual aid agreements (from the State of Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency website).


The fourth phase of the EMAC process. This phase includes three stages: mobilization, when personnel make final preparations for deployment; deployment, when personnel perform their missions or render services in the affected area; and demobilization, when deployed personnel complete their missions and return home.



Simulation Cell

Situation Report (SITREP)

A report that details status of the emergency operation and the response being taken to that emergency event.  The purpose of the SITREP is to ensure that all parties involved in the response effort are thoroughly informed of every facet of the current operation. The SITREP is prepared by the EMAC A-Team and posted to the EMAC online Operations System (EOS).


Subject Matter Expert


Standard Operating Procedure


Exercise Play starts


With regard to EMAC, any one of fifty United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and all United States territories.

State of Emergency

A governmental declaration that may suspend some normal functions of the executive, legislative and judicial powers; alert citizens to change their normal behaviors; or order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans (from Wikipedia). 


Tabletop Exercise

The simulation of an emergency in an informal, stress-free, discussion-enabled environment that focus on such issues as authorities, strategies, plans, policies, procedures, and systems guiding the response and recovery. The objectives of a tabletop exercise are typically understanding of a concept, identification of opportunities or problems, and achieving a change in attitude.

Theater of Operations (TO)

An EMAC operation in its totality. The control of the EMAC Theater of Operations falls under the purview of the NCS, with support from the NELT. An EMAC Theater of Operations is composed of potentially many areas of operations.

Tracking Number (TN)

A number on the EMAC REQ-A that helps states and EMAC staff keep track of resources deployed on a mission during an event. Each event mission has its own unique tracking number. In fact, each has an EMAC tracking number created by the EMAC online Operations System, an EM Software tracking number created by the emergency management system possessed by the state EMA, and a state tracking number established by the state itself.

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